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The anterior compartment includes the tibialis anterior generic propecia 5 mg on-line hair loss cure ayurvedic, the extensor hallucis longus propecia 1 mg otc hair loss cure release date, the extensor digitorum longus, and the fibularis (peroneus) tertius. The superficial posterior compartment has the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris; and the deep posterior compartment has the popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. What are some similarities and differences between the muscles are arranged around the joints of the body. At some point in the future, will this type of technology lead to the ability to augment our nervous systems? Army/Wikimedia Commons) Introduction Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: • Name the major divisions of the nervous system, both anatomical and functional • Describe the functional and structural differences between gray matter and white matter structures • Name the parts of the multipolar neuron in order of polarity 504 Chapter 12 | The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue • List the types of glial cells and assign each to the proper division of the nervous system, along with their function(s) • Distinguish the major functions of the nervous system: sensation, integration, and response • Describe the components of the membrane that establish the resting membrane potential • Describe the changes that occur to the membrane that result in the action potential • Explain the differences between types of graded potentials • Categorize the major neurotransmitters by chemical type and effect The nervous system is a very complex organ system. Kramer’s book Listening to Prozac, a pharmaceutical researcher is quoted as saying, “If the human brain were simple enough for us to understand, we would be too simple to understand it” (1994). That quote is from the early 1990s; in the two decades since, progress has continued at an amazing rate within the scientific disciplines of neuroscience. It is an interesting conundrum to consider that the complexity of the nervous system may be too complex for it (that is, for us) to completely unravel. One easy way to begin to understand the structure of the nervous system is to start with the large divisions and work through to a more in-depth understanding. In other chapters, the finer details of the nervous system will be explained, but first looking at an overview of the system will allow you to begin to understand how its parts work together. But before you learn about that, you will see a big picture of the system—actually, a few big pictures. That suggests it is made of two organs—and you may not even think of the spinal cord as an organ—but the nervous system is a very complex structure. Within the brain, many different and separate regions are responsible for many different and separate functions. It is as if the nervous system is composed of many organs that all look similar and can only be differentiated using tools such as the microscope or electrophysiology. In comparison, it is easy to see that the stomach is different than the esophagus or the liver, so you can imagine the digestive system as a collection of specific organs. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems The nervous system can be divided into two major regions: the central and peripheral nervous systems. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral cavity of the vertebral column. In actuality, there are some elements of the peripheral nervous system that are within the cranial or vertebral cavities. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is on the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord. Depending on different aspects of the nervous system, the dividing line between central and peripheral is not necessarily universal. A glial cell is one of a variety of cells that provide a framework of tissue that supports the neurons and their activities. The neuron is the more functionally important of the two, in terms of the communicative function of the nervous system. To describe the functional divisions of the nervous system, it is important to understand the structure of a neuron. Neurons are cells and therefore have a soma, or cell body, but they also have extensions of the cell; each extension is generally referred to as a process. There is one important process that every neuron has called an axon, which is the fiber that connects a neuron with its target. Looking at nervous tissue, there are regions that predominantly contain cell bodies and regions that are largely composed of just axons. These two regions within nervous system structures are often referred to as gray matter (the regions with many cell bodies and dendrites) or white matter (the regions with many axons). It can be pinkish because of blood content, or even slightly tan, depending on how long the tissue has been preserved. Actually, gray matter may have that color ascribed to it because next to the white matter, it is just darker—hence, gray. The distinction between gray matter and white matter is most often applied to central nervous tissue, which has large regions that can be seen with the unaided eye. When looking at peripheral structures, often a microscope is used and the tissue is stained with artificial colors. There is also a potentially confusing use of the word ganglion (plural = ganglia) that has a historical explanation. In the central nervous system, there is a group of nuclei that are connected together and were once called the basal ganglia before “ganglion” became accepted as a description for a peripheral structure. There is an important point to make about these terms, which is that they can both be used to refer to the same bundle of axons. Those axons are called the optic nerve as they leave the eye, but when they are inside the cranium, they are referred to as the optic tract. There is a specific place where the name changes, which is the optic chiasm, but they are still This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx. The same axons extend from the eye to the brain through these two bundles of fibers, but the chiasm represents the border between peripheral and central. This is a tool to see the structures of the body (not just the nervous system) that depends on magnetic fields associated with certain atomic nuclei. The utility of this technique in the nervous system is that fat tissue and water appear as different shades between black and white. How do the imaging techniques shown in this game indicate the separation of white and gray matter compared with the freshly dissected tissue shown earlier? The problem with trying to fit functional differences into anatomical divisions is that sometimes the same structure can be part of several functions. For example, the optic nerve carries signals from the retina that are either used for the conscious perception of visual stimuli, which takes place in the cerebral cortex, or for the reflexive responses of smooth muscle tissue that are processed through the hypothalamus.
The parts 1 mg propecia hair loss vitamin d, which are always built in advance of the surgery 5 mg propecia sale hair loss cure islam, are sometimes custom made to produce the best possible fit for a patient. Gout is a form of arthritis that results from the deposition of uric acid crystals within a body joint. A diet with excessive fructose has been implicated in raising the chances of a susceptible individual developing gout. Other forms of arthritis are associated with various autoimmune diseases, bacterial infections of the joint, or unknown genetic causes. Autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, or systemic lupus erythematosus, produce arthritis because the immune system of the body attacks the body joints. As the disease progresses, the articular cartilage is severely damaged or destroyed, resulting in joint deformation, loss of movement, and severe disability. The most commonly involved joints are the hands, feet, and cervical spine, with corresponding joints on both sides of the body usually affected, though not always to the same extent. Rheumatoid arthritis is also associated with lung fibrosis, vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels), coronary heart disease, and premature mortality. Exercise, anti-inflammatory and pain medications, various specific disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, or surgery are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. These cause erosion and loss of the articular cartilage covering the surfaces of the bones, resulting in inflammation that causes joint stiffness and pain. Each movement at a synovial joint results from the contraction or relaxation of the muscles that are attached to the bones on either side of the articulation. While the ball-and-socket joint gives the greatest range of movement at an individual joint, in other regions of the body, several joints may work together to produce a particular movement. Overall, each type of synovial joint is necessary to provide the body with its great flexibility and mobility. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: upright stance, with upper limbs to the side of body and palms facing forward. These movements take place at the shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints. Adduction brings the limb or hand toward or across the midline of the body, or brings the fingers or toes together. Circumduction is the movement of the limb, hand, or fingers in a circular pattern, using the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction motions. Adduction/abduction and circumduction take place at the shoulder, hip, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. Medial and lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or lower limb at the hip involves turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (medial or internal rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or external rotation). Flexion and Extension Flexion and extension are movements that take place within the sagittal plane and involve anterior or posterior movements of the body or limbs. For the vertebral column, flexion (anterior flexion) is an anterior (forward) bending of the neck or body, while extension involves a posterior-directed motion, such as straightening from a flexed position or bending backward. These movements of the vertebral column involve both the symphysis joint formed by each intervertebral disc, as well as the plane type of synovial joint formed between the inferior articular processes of one vertebra and the superior articular processes of the next lower vertebra. In the limbs, flexion decreases the angle between the bones (bending of the joint), while extension increases the angle and straightens the joint. For the upper limb, all anterior-going motions are flexion and all posterior-going motions are extension. For the thumb, extension moves the thumb away from the palm of the hand, within the same plane as the palm, while flexion brings the thumb back against the index finger or into the palm. In the lower limb, bringing the thigh forward and upward is flexion at the hip joint, while any posterior-going motion of the thigh is extension. Note that extension of the thigh beyond the anatomical (standing) position is greatly limited by the ligaments that support the hip joint. Knee flexion is the bending of the knee to bring the foot toward the posterior thigh, and extension is the straightening of the knee. Flexion and extension movements are seen at the hinge, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints of the limbs (see Figure 9. Hyperextension is the abnormal or excessive extension of a joint beyond its normal range of motion, thus resulting in injury. In cases of “whiplash” in which the head is suddenly moved backward and then forward, a patient may experience both hyperextension and hyperflexion of the cervical region. Abduction and Adduction Abduction and adduction motions occur within the coronal plane and involve medial-lateral motions of the limbs, fingers, toes, or thumb. Abduction moves the limb laterally away from the midline of the body, while adduction is the opposing movement that brings the limb toward the body or across the midline. For example, abduction is raising the arm at the shoulder joint, moving it laterally away from the body, while adduction brings the arm down to the side of the body. Similarly, abduction and adduction at the wrist moves the hand away from or toward the midline of the body. Spreading the fingers or toes apart is also abduction, while bringing the fingers or toes together is adduction. For the thumb, abduction is the anterior movement that brings the thumb to a 90° perpendicular position, pointing straight out from the palm. Abduction and adduction movements are seen at condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints (see Figure 9. Circumduction Circumduction is the movement of a body region in a circular manner, in which one end of the body region being moved stays relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle. This type of motion is found at biaxial condyloid and saddle joints, and at multiaxial ball-and-sockets joints (see Figure 9. Rotation Rotation can occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae.
Griseofulvin in a dose of 10-20 mg per kg for six weeks to 8weeks is the first-line treatment of Tinea capitis trusted 5 mg propecia hair loss cure october 2013. Lesions are round purchase propecia 5 mg with amex hair loss in men 4 men, scaly patches that have a well defined, enlarging border and a relatively clear central portion. Itching is variable and not diagnostic Tinea corporis can assume a giant size (Tinea incognito) when steroids are applied for cosmetic reasons or as a result of miss diagnosis. Tinea pedis Tinea pedis is fungal infection of the feet and is usually related to sweating and warmth, and use of occlusive footwear. It may also present with a classic pattern on the dorsal surface of the foot or as chronic dry, scaly hyperkeratosis of the soles and heels. Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor) Versicolor versicolor is a common, benign, superficial cutaneous (stratum corneum) fungal infection at the level of stratum corneum characterized by hypo pigmented or hyperpigmented macules and patches with faint scale on the chest and the back. Etiology: Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporon ovale,) M furfur is a member of normal flora of the skin found in 18% of infants and 90-100% of adults. Predisposing factors include - genetic predisposition, warm, humid environments, excessive sweating, immunosuppression, malnutrition, and Cushing disease. Treatment Patients should be informed that it is caused by a normal flora of the skin hence it is not transmitted and any skin color alterations resolve within 1-2 months after treatment. Effective topical agents include: Sodium thiosulphate solution, selenium sulfide and azole, ciclopiroxolamine, and allylamine antifungals. Weekly applications of any of the topical agents for the following few months may help prevent recurrence. Ketoconazole 200-mg daily for 10-days and as a single-dose 400-mg treatment, have comparative results. Oral therapy does not prevent the high rate of recurrence, unless repeated on an intermittent basis throughout the year. Candidiasis Candida infections caused by yeast-like fungi Candida albicans commonly occur in moist, flexural sites. Under certain conditions, they can become so numerous that they cause infections, particularly in warm and moist areas. Pruritic rash that begins with vesiculopustules, which enlarge and rupture, causing maceration and fissuring. Paronychia and onychomycosis Frequently, paronychia and onychomycosis are associated with immersion of the hands in water. Patients present with a painful and erythematous area around and underneath the nail and nail bed, warm, glistening, tense, and tender. There is secondary nail thickening, ridging, discoloration, and occasional nail loss in chronic cases. Physical examination reveals a diffuse erythema and white patches that appear on the surfaces of the buccal mucosa, throat, tongue, and gums. The presence of retrosternal pain, epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting may suggest esophageal candidiasis Vulvovaginal candidiasis: This is the second most common cause of vaginitis. A patch resembling thrush appears on the glans and may spread to the thighs, gluteal folds, buttocks, and scrotum. Treatment Candida intertrigo - Topical azoles and polyenes, including clotrimazole, miconazole, and nystatin, are effective. Paronychia - the most important intervention is drainage followed by oral antifungal therapy with either ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole. Single daily dose of itraconazole taken for 3-6 months or a pulsed-dose regimen that requires a slightly higher dose daily for 7 days, followed by 3 weeks off therapy. Vulvovaginal candidiasis – Azole suppository or pessaries , in resistant case systemic therapy for 10 days. Warts Warts or verrucae are benign growths on the skin or mucous membranes that cause cosmetic problems as well as pain and discomfort. The incubation period of a wart is 2 to 9 months during which time an excessive proliferation of skin growth slowly develops. Common warts, especially in children, do not necessarily need to be treated, because they exhibit a high rate of spontaneous remission. Treatment Salicylic acid 25% ointment twice daily followed by cutting or scraping Preparation of salicylic acid 5-20% and lactic acid 5-20 in collodion are easier to use Electrodessication and curettage Freezing with liquid nitrogen if available. Protect the skin around the wart with Vaseline apply the podophyllin with a match stick carefully on the top of the war and wash after 6 hours. Molluscum contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin that causes discrete papules that may be mistaken for warts. The rash of molluscum contagiosum is characterized by discrete, 2 to 5 mm papules that are flesh- colored (skin color) and dome-shaped with a central umbilication (depressed centre). Cryosurgery - Using liquid nitrogen to freeze the lesion Salicylic Acid (Compound W) - A solution applied to the lesion with or without tape occlusion 3. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus 30 Primary infection Latency Transmission can occur in all stages; more at the primary Reactivation stage What causes latency? Herpetic Whithlow Infection of pulp of fingertips, it could appear after touching a primary lesion of ones owns lesion or that of others. Lesions are bilateral and symmetrical, inguinal lymph nodes may be enlarged, fever and flu like symptom may be there. Manifestations: Skin vesicles, Encephalitis, Hepatitis, Pneumonia, Coagulopathy Mortality rate (M/R) >50% in ideal setting. Scabies Definition: - scabies is one of the commonest intensely pruritic, highly contagious infectious conditions of the skin caused by a mite Sarcoptis scabei and transmitted by close personal and sexual contacts 34 Historically It has been recognized as a disease for over 2500 years.
However order propecia 5mg amex hair loss young living oils, infectious and crystal-induced fluids tend to form fibrin clots buy propecia 1mg line hair loss 15 year old male, making an anticoagulant necessary for adequate cell counts and an even distribution of cells and crystals for morphologic analysis. Routine examination of synovial fluid The routine examination of synovial fluid should include the following 1. Other tests, as necessary Gross appearance The first step in the analysis of synovial fluids is to 435 Hematology observe the specimen for color and clarity. As the cell and protein content increases, or crystals precipitate, the turbidity increases, and the print becomes more difficult to read. In a traumatic tap of he joint, blood will be seen in the collection tubes in an uneven distribution with streaks of blood in the aspiration syringe. Xanthochromia in the supernatant fluid indicates bleeding in the joint, but is difficult to evaluate because the fluid is normally yellow. A dark-red or dark-brown supernatant is evidence of joint bleeding rather than a traumatic tap Viscosity Viscosity is most easily evaluated at the time of arthrocentesis by allowing the synovial fluid to drop from the end of the needle. However, this test is of questionable value, as results rarely change the diagnosis and are essentially the same as with the string test for viscosity. Red cell and White Blood cell count The appearance of a drop of synovial fluid under an ordinary light microscope can be helpful in estimating the cell counts initially and in demonstrating the presence of crystals. When cells are counted in other fluid, such as blood, the usually diluting fluid is dilute acetic acid. If it is necessary to lyse red blood cells, either hypotonic saline or saponinized saline can be used as a diluent. Since acetic acid cannot be used as a diluent, both red and white cells are enumerated at the same time. Cell counts below 200/µl with less than 25% polymorphonuclear cells and no red cells are normally observed in synovial fluid. A low white cell count (200 to 2000/µl) with predominantly mononuclear cells suggests a noninflammatory joint fluid, while a high white cell count suggests inflammation and a very high white cell count with a high proportion of polymorphonuclear cells strongly suggests infection. Eosinophilia may be seen in metastatic carcinoma to the synovium, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also associated with parasitic infections and Lyme disease and has occurred after arthrography and radiation therapy. Each product or fraction varies in its individual composition, each contributing to the whole specimen. During ejaculation, 439 Hematology the products are mixed in order to produce the normal viscous semen specimen or ejaculate. These include assessment of fertility or infertility, forensic purposes, determination of the effectiveness of vasectomy, and determination of the suitability of semen for artificial insemination procedures. Collection of semen specimen Give the person a clean, dry, leak-proof container, and request him to collect a specimen of semen at home following 3-7 days of sexual abstinence. When a condom is sued to collect the fluid, this must be well- washed to remove the powder which coats the rubber. Coitus interruptus method of collection should not be used because the first portion of the ejaculate (often containing the highest concentration of spermatozoa) may be lost. Also the acid pH of vaginal fluid can affect sperm motility and the semen may become contaminated with cells and bacteria. This is best achieved by placing the container inside a plastic bag and 440 Hematology transporting it in a pocket in the person’s clothing. Laboratory assays The sample should be handled with car because it may contain infectious pathogens, e. When investigating infertility, the basic analysis of semen (seminal fluid) usually includes: • Measurement of volume • Measurement of pH • Examination of a wet preparation to estimate the percentage of motile spermatozoa and viable forms and to look for cells and bacteria • Sperm count • Examination of a stained preparation to estimate the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology Measurement of volume Normal semen is thick and viscous when ejaculated. Estimate the percentage of motile and viable spermatozoa Motility: Place 1 drop (one drop falling from a 21g needle is equivalent to a volume of 10-15µl) of well- mixed liquefied semen on a slide and cover with a 20x20mm or 22x22mm cover glass. Ensure the spermatozoa are evenly distributed (if not, re-mix the semen and examine a new preparation). When more than 60% of spermatozoa are non-motile, examine an eosin preparation to assess whether the spermatozoa are viable or non-viable. Use the low power objective to focus the specimen and the high power objective to count the percentage of viable and non-viable spermatozoa. A large proportion of non-motile but viable spermatozoa may indicate a structural defect in the flagellum. Using the low power objective with the condenser iris closed sufficiently to give good contrast, count the number of spermatozoa in an area of 2 sq mm, i. Estimate the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology in a stained preparation Make a thin smear of the liquefied well-mixed semen on a slide. Count 100 spermatozoa and estimate the percentage showing normal morphology and the percentage that appear abnormal. Abnormal semen findings should be checked by examining a further specimen, particularly when the sperm count is low and the spermatozoa appear non- viable and abnormal. When the abnormalities are present in the second semen, further tests are indicated in a specialist center. Each consists of an oval-shaped head (with acrosomal cap) which measures 3-5 x 2-3µm, a short middle piece, and a long thin tail (at least 45µm in length). Staining feature: Nucleus of head-dark blue; cytoplasm of head-pale blue; Middle piece and tail-pink-red. Abnormal spermatozoa: the following abnormalities may be seen: • Head: greatly increased or decreased in size; abnormal shape and tapering head (pyriform); acrosomal cap absent or abnormally large; Nucleus contains vacuoles or chromatin in unevenly distributed; two heads; additional residual body, i. One of the major technologic changes in the clinical laboratory has been the introduction of automated analysis. An automated analytic instrument 449 Hematology provides a means for transfer of a specimen within its complex assembly to a series of self-acting components, each of which carries out a specific process or stage of the process, ending in the analytic result being produced. Automation systems include some kind of device for sampling the patient’s specimen or other samples to be tested (such as blanks, controls, and standard solutions), a mechanism to add the necessary amounts of reagents in the proper sequence, incubation modules when needed for the specific reaction, monitoring or measuring devices such as photometric technology to quantitate the extent of the reaction, and a recording mechanism to provide the final reading or permanent record of the analytic result.