By D. Khabir. Merrimack College.
But many parents cheap kamagra chewable 100 mg with visa impotence merriam webster, often on the advice of the child‘s teacher generic 100 mg kamagra chewable with visa erectile dysfunction causes heart disease, take their children to a psychologist for diagnosis. Other studies have also pointed to environmental factors, such as mothers‘ smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy and the consumption of lead and food additives by those who are affected (Braun, Kahn, Froehlich,  Auinger, & Lanphear, 2006; Linnet et al. Jared is able to maintain eye contact and enjoys mixing with other children, but he cannot communicate with them very well. He often responds to questions or comments with long-winded speeches about trucks or some other topic that interests him, and he seems to lack awareness of other children‘s wishes and needs. Jared‘s concerned parents took him to a multidisciplinary child development center for consultation. Here he was tested by a pediatric neurologist, a psychologist, and a child psychiatrist. The pediatric neurologist found that Jared‘s hearing was normal, and there were no signs of any neurological disorder. He diagnosed Jared with a pervasive developmental disorder, because while his comprehension and expressive language was poor, he was still able to carry out nonverbal tasks, such as drawing a picture or doing a puzzle. Based on her observation of Jared‘s difficulty interacting with his peers, and the fact that he did not respond warmly to his parents, the psychologist diagnosed Jared with autistic disorder (autism), a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior, and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age. The psychologist believed that the autism diagnosis was correct because, like other children with autism, Jared, has a poorly developed ability to see the world from the perspective of others; engages in unusual behaviors such as talking about trucks for hours; and responds to stimuli, such as the sound of a car or an airplane, in unusual ways. The child psychiatrist believed that Jared‘s language problems and social skills were not severe enough to warrant a diagnosis of autistic disorder and instead proposed a diagnosis of Asperger‘s disorder, a developmental disorder that affects a child’s ability to socialize and Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The symptoms of Asperger‘s are almost identical to that of autism (with the exception of a delay in language development), and the child psychiatrist simply saw these problems as less extreme. Clearly there is something wrong with their child, but even the experts cannot agree on exactly what the problem is. Diagnosing problems such as Jared‘s is difficult, yet the number of children like him is increasing dramatically. Disorders related to autism and Asperger‘s disorder now affect almost 1% of  American children (Kogan et al. The milder forms of autism, and particularly Asperger‘s, have accounted for most of this increase in diagnosis. Although for many years autism was thought to be primarily a socially determined disorder, in which parents who were cold, distant, and rejecting created the problem, current research suggests that biological factors are most important. The heritability of autism has been estimated  to be as high as 90% (Freitag, 2007). Scientists speculate that autism is caused by an unknown genetically determined brain abnormality that occurs early in development. It is likely  that several different brain sites are affected (Moldin, 2003), and the search for these areas is being conducted in many scientific laboratories. The problem is that diagnosis is not exact (remember the idea of “categories‖), and the experts themselves are often unsure how to classify behavior. Can you think of or find clips from any films or other popular media that portray mental illness positively or negatively? Is it more or less acceptable to stereotype the mentally ill than to stereotype other social groups? Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder comorbidity in the National Survey of Mental Health and Well Being. Presented to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed. Exposures to environmental toxicants and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder in U. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: Review of the current evidence. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo- controlled trial. Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: The importance of shared environment. The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: A review of the literature. Explain the biological and environmental causes of anxiety and dissociative disorders. Anxiety, the nervousness or agitation that we sometimes experience, often about something that is going to happen, is a natural part of life. We all feel anxious at times, maybe when we think about our upcoming visit to the dentist or the presentation we have to give to our class next week. Anxiety is an important and useful human emotion; it is associated with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the physiological and behavioral responses that help protect us from danger. But too much anxiety can be debilitating, and every year millions of people suffer from anxiety disorders, which arepsychological disturbances marked by irrational fears,  often of everyday objects and situations (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Consider the following, in which “Chase‖ describes her feelings of a persistent and exaggerated sense of anxiety, even when there is little or nothing in her life to provoke it: Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The best way to describe it is like a really bad feeling of negative inevitability, like something really bad is impending, but I don’t know what. It’s like I’m on trial for murder or I’m just waiting to be sent down for something. I have it all of the time but it gets worse in waves that come from nowhere with no apparent triggers. I used to get it before going out for nights out with friends, and it kinda stopped me from doing it as I’d rather not go out and stress about the feeling, but now I have it  all the time so it doesn’t really make a difference anymore. The sufferer cannot deal with what is causing the anxiety, nor avoid it, because there is no clear cause for anxiety.
A wealthy widow cheap kamagra chewable 100mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment new jersey, living in a hotel in England buy kamagra chewable 100mg mastercard impotence hypertension, went out for an afernoon with a John Haig, who lived in the same hotel. Haig showed he had a police record and led to a two-story shed he used for what he called “experi- ments. During his interrogation, Haig admitted killing the widow and said he destroyed her body in acid. Afer a fourth sifing of a pile of black slush found behind the shed, a set of upper and lower dentures was found. Haig admitted to the murder, as the dentures were made totally of acrylic resin and would have dissolved completely, given enough time. A dentist was able to identify the individual by the use of this particular type of denture teeth. Tey proposed twenty-three points of skin thickness measurements, which they provided in the form of a table. Sof materials were then used to sculpt the face, a technique that has been widely used and is still used with modif- cations today. Tey had in fact died together in 1945, but 22 Forensic dentistry their bodies had been burned and then buried in secret by Russian soldiers. Due to a lack of antemortem and postmortem records, it was a challenge to dispel the rumors. Finally, pieces of Hitler’s jaw were found that showed remnants of a bridge, as well as unusual forms of reconstruction, and evi- dence of periodontal disease. Hitler’s identity was confrmed when the dental work matched the records kept by Hitler’s dentist, Hugo Blaschke. State case in Texas in 1954 marked the frst time that this type of dental evidence was used in court in the United States. Te analysis of the evidence was made by having the suspect bite into another piece of cheese for the comparison. Kemp, a dentist and longtime dental examiner for the State of Texas, testifed that the bites in both pieces of cheese matched. Kennedy, an English author named Michael Eddowes raised suspicion concerning the identifcation of Lee Harvey Oswald. It was his belief that the body buried in 1963 in Oswald’s grave was really that of a Russian spy. To set the record straight, the body was exhumed and a positive identifcation of Oswald was made on October 4, 1981, with the aid of military antemortem dental records. Forensic odontologists history of Forensic dentistry 23 will continue to make these types of valuable contributions to society and forensic science. Paris: Escrite par vn Grefer de l’Hostel de ville de Praris Imprimėefur sur le vray Original. A system to assist in the identifcation of criminals and others by means of their teeth. Te role of the dentists in the identifcation of the victims of the catastrophe of the “Bazar de la Charite,” Paris, 4th of May, 1897. Grundzuege einer praktischen Methode zur raschen und genauen Vermarkung der azhnaerztlichen Beobachtungen und Operationen. On a system of dental notation, being a code of symbols from the use of dentists in recording surgery work. Die Persistenz der Bassen und die Rekonstruktion der Physiognomie prahistorischer Schadel. Although the majority of dental identifcation cases do involve the dead, there is much more involved, including cases dealing with the living, in this interesting feld of art and science. With training, ongoing continuing education, and experience, the forensic odontologist will fnd the application of this knowledge to be per- sonally rewarding. If dentists are interested but do not wish to pursue the areas of forensic dentistry that are associated with “wet work,” they will fnd that they can practice “dry fngered” forensic dentistry in their own ofces by accurately recording their patient’s oral information on an ongoing basis. Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology involves several areas that will be discussed generally in this chapter and explained in more detail in later chapters. Te general defnition of this discipline is that forensic odontology is the combination of the science and art of dentistry and the legal system, a crossroads of dental science and law. Te general topics to be discussed 25 26 Forensic dentistry include the subdisciplines of forensic odontology, dental identifcation, multiple fatality incident management, bitemarks, abuse, age estimation, and expert testimony in criminal and civil litigation. Dental identifcation is most ofen accomplished by comparing postmortem dental radiographs from the unidentifed person with antemortem radiographs of a known individual. Tis process of dental forensics is ofen interpreted on currently popular forensic television series by the actor-dentist holding a dental radiograph backlit by the room lights with the flm overhead while standing in the elevator lobby. But, of course, the actor-dentist is certain that the radiographs he was just handed for eval- uation are from the decedent. Te positive identifcation is completed and without further discussion the district attorney’s case theory is confrmed and the suspect is incarcerated. In real forensic cases the process of using dental radiographs and dental charting can be an accurate and efcient method for making a positive iden- tifcation or exclusion. But, the comparison must be completed in a controlled and methodical manner, with attention to the details of the dental structures and restorations that may be seen in the radiographic comparison. A com- parison of an antemortem radiograph with a body in the morgue occurs only in the virtual reality of television and flm world. In a dental identifcation, the initial goal of the forensic dentist is to obtain a set of postmortem photographs, radiographs, and accurate dental charting on the unidentifed person. Tis can be a straightforward or difcult process, depending on the condition of the postmortem specimen and the physical resources available to the dentist.
In living adults these are limited to the radiological and visual examination techniques unless a valid clinical reason for removing 294 Forensic dentistry all or part of a tooth exists purchase 100 mg kamagra chewable overnight delivery erectile dysfunction treatment in kerala. In those cases buy kamagra chewable 100mg cheap erectile dysfunction treatment options exercise, aspartic acid racemization analysis or 14C analysis may be performed. Te same radiographic and visual procedures used for living individuals can be used for the deceased. In addition to those methods, and with per- mission from coroners or medical examiners, teeth can be removed for age estimation studies. With proper con- sideration of the limitations of the technique, there is no reason that it could not be routinely used in human age estimation. Although work remains to be performed to validate the determination of the ratios in amino acid racemization, that method is a promising technique for improving dental age estimation in all age groups. Both tooth cementum annulation and aspartic acid racemization can be used, with associated limitations, for individuals of any age. Radioactive 14C analysis from tooth enamel is a new and promising technique, potentially ofering the most accurate and precise information on estimated date of birth for those individuals born afer 1943. Using human teeth for age estimation is well established in past and recent literature. Multiple studies have demonstrated varying accuracy, reli- ability, and precision. Reproducible and reliable results are possible when the appropriate techniques for a given situation are properly understood and applied. Specifc individuals within a population may live at either end of the range or fall outside the normal limits. Te limitations of current methods and the paucity of population data available mean those methods are not adequate to allow precise age estimation results for every case. Age estima- tion reports must clearly convey that the data reported are based on mean ages derived from the features studied for a specifc population and should include realistic ranges. Specifc casework may require combining methods to arrive at the most accurate conclusions. When possible, more than one dental technique or a combination of dental and skeletal or other techniques should be used. Since research into age estimation is ongoing, forensic dentists performing age estimation must age estimation from oral and dental structures 295 continually monitor the scientifc journals that report new developments and validate or challenge existing techniques. Multifactorial determination of skeletal age at death: A method and blind tests of its accuracy. Reliability of age at death in the Hamann-Todd collection: Validity of subselection procedures used in blind tests of the summary age technique. Test of the multifactorial aging method using skele- tons with known ages-at-death from the Grant Collection. A multivariate analysis of temporal change in Arikara craniometrics: A methodological approach. Tooth mineralization standards for blacks and whites from the middle southern United States. An example of regional variation in the tempos of tooth mineralization and hand-wrist ossifcation. Dental maturity of children in Perth, Western Australia, and its application in forensic age estimation. Dental maturity as an indicator of chrono- logical age: Radiographic evaluation of dental age in 6 to 13 years children of Belgaum using Demirjian methods. Relationship between the sequence of calci- fcation and the sequence of eruption of the mandibular molar and premolar teeth. Studies from the center for research in child health and devel- opment, School of Public Health, Harvard University. Sex diferences in the chronology of deciduous tooth emer- gence in white and black children. Comparison of the deciduous dentition in Negro and white infants: A preliminary study. Timing of exchange of the maxillary deciduous and permanent teeth in boys with three types of orofacial clefs. Te accuracy of three methods of age estimation using radiographic measurements of developing teeth. Negro-Caucasoid diferences in permanent tooth emer- gence at a constant income level. Efect of extraction of deciduous molars on the formation and eruption of their successors. Emergence of the permanent teeth in Pima Indian children: A critical analysis of method and an estimate of population parameters. An epidemiological survey of the time and sequence of eruption of permanent teeth in 4–15-year-olds in Tehran, Iran. Comparison of diferent methods for estimating human tooth-eruption time on one set of Danish national data. Parametric survival analysis in Bangladeshi, Guatemalan, Japanese, and Javanese children. Tooth-by-tooth survival analysis of the frst caries attack in diferent age cohorts and health centers in Finland. Development of the human jaws and surrounding structures from birth to the age of ffeen years.
When available the indigenous groups will use western medicine to treat fractures buy kamagra chewable 100 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction young age. However quality kamagra chewable 100mg best erectile dysfunction pills review, due to the remote location of many of the communities, the sabedores use the bark of certain trees as a splint which they say heals the bone as well as acting as an analgesic. Examples of traditional curative plant medicines Among the enormous number of plants, below are included a few of those used by sabedores from different tribes in the Amazon forest. Amori (Uitoto language) Preparation The Amori tree, which has not been botanically identified, is found in primary forest. The sabedores record it as having hallucinogenic effects and it is also known as ambil de monte. It is cura- Araracuara, Caquéta medio, Amazonas, tive for nervous conditions, high Colombia, 26 June 1991. In the Caquetá Media geographical area Albahaca is known in the Uitoto language as Jaibikie. According to Sabedor Oscar Román, the plant is used to bathe children to improve their mood and to lower fevers caused by influenza and cough. To treat diarrhoea the plant is prepared in hot water with cinnamon and lemon (see interview 3 in the addendum). As a comparison, we include an example of use of the same plant, Alba- haca (Ocimum micranthum), used by the Quichua ethnic group, Amazon forest, Ecuador. In this case, Sabedor Gabriel Tapuy explains that the plant can be used to treat ‘mal aire’. The plant is collected and passed over the person repeatedly in the form of a cross in order to extract negative energies or ‘clean’ them. According to Sabedor Gabriel, the person who carries out the treatment will feel the arm become heavy if he or she is successful at extracting the ‘mal aire’ (see interview 4 in the addendum). Traditional medicine used in the Colombian Amazon forest | 77 Badea (Passiflora quadrangularis) Sabedor Hilario Rivero Yukuna, originally from Mirití said in an interview in, Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia (see interview 5 in the addendum): Seven leaves of Badea are collected and cooked in water. The plant is used to clean the stomach when suffering painful cramps and diarrhoea. Members of other ethnic groups or pueblos such as Muinas (Uitotos), Muinanes, Andokes, Yukunas and others use the young Badea leaves to cure hepatitis A and B in the early stages: on the first day of treatment, the juice of one leaf is taken, and each following day the juice of another leaf is added until nine leaves are being used; the plant is then suspended for 3 days. On resuming the treatment, the number of leaves taken is reduced by one leaf each day until returning to one leaf (see interview 6 in the addendum). It is also used topically as an anti-inflammatory and to control haemorrhage from a wound; the cold leaf is applied directly to the affected area. Internally it can be taken as an infusion made with the leaves, or taken as the pure juice to lower blood pressure. In order to increase hair growth the leaf is crushed and applied to the head without bathing. The fresh fungus is red in colour, and at this stage is 78 | Traditional medicine Figure 4. After 3 or 4 days the fungus begins to turn white in colour and at this stage of ageing is highly toxic (see interview 8 in the addendum). According to Sabedor Oscar Roman Enokai- (see Traditional medicine used in the Colombian Amazon forest | 79 Figure 4. The fat is removed from the grub and some of it massaged on to the patient’s chest, and the rest is given to the patient to eat. It has also been reported to be used as a cure for haem- orrhagic diseases (bleeding). The limited infor- mation presented here is based on research by the authors, and unless other- wise referenced is based on this work. A particular effort has been made to give credit directly to the sabedores who have given specific information. The authors have recorded ancestral knowledge of healing pueblos or ethnic groups of the Amazon forest. They do not suggest that the plants and other natural products should by used by anyone in any way. As has been reported the sabedores adhere to restrictions and regulations and have a lifetime of experience of survival in tropical forest conditions. Each of these treatments has been used by the sabedores following the necessary restrictions, dosage and follow-up by the relevant sabedor. Photography Unless otherwise stated, photographs were taken by Ann Mitchell and Blanca de Corredor. Theoretical proposal for an innovative study of the cognitive mechanisms of cultural adaptation. Plantas de los Dioses Orígenes del uso de los alucinógenos (Plants of the Gods – Origins and use of hallucinogens). Ministry of National Education; Amazon Fund Programme; Coordina- tion of Amazon Education; Fundación Caminos de identidad (Foundation of Paths of Identity), 1996: 12–13, 16–18, 29. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: The Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London. Sabedores, Sabedoras: Metodos de recuperación, preservación y manejo de la selva y de la várzea. Wisemen, wisewomen: Methods of recuperation, preservation and management of the forest and varzea.
Consider how you would check their effectiveness and monitor for potential adverse effects or signs of toxicity purchase kamagra chewable 100mg with visa causes juvenile erectile dysfunction. Chapter 43 Transplants Fundamental knowledge Brainstem and cranial nerve function Introduction Since the introduction of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A and the University of Wisconsin preservation solution best 100mg kamagra chewable impotence kit, transplantation has become a viable treatment for endstage failure of all major body systems (except the brain), and increasing numbers of other pathologies are treated by donor grafts (e. Yet increasing donor shortage is causing increased waiting time which, with endstage failure, often means increased mortality. Few centres currently perform lung transplantation; although the quality of life is improved (MacNaughton et al. Cadaver lungs are usually split, enabling two patients to receive transplants from one donor (Dark 1997). Brainstem death Historically, death was synonymous with cessation of breathing and/or heartbeat. The development of technologies to replace breathing (ventilators) and heartbeat (pacing) coincided with the transfer of organ donation from science fiction to science fact, necessitating a revision of the concepts of death. The brainstem, extending between the cerebrum and spinal cord and consisting of the pons, medulla oblongata and midbrain, contains the vital centres (respiratory, cardiac and other), so that if the brainstem is dead, higher consciousness and control cannot be regained. Any medical conditions that could prevent brainstem function must be excluded (see Table 43. The reflexes and responses of each cranial nerve are then tested (individually or in combination; see Table 43. If higher centre responses are absent, brainstem death may be diagnosed; any response from higher centres (however abnormal or limited) prohibits brainstem death diagnosis. The legal time of death is the first test, although death is not pronounced until confirmed by the second test (DoH 1998b). Timing between the two sets of tests is often relatively brief, partly to facilitate the presence of the same team and partly to reduce anxiety for families waiting for confirmation of death, but it should be long enough to ensure that the second set of tests is meaningful. The Human Tissues Act (1961) established that after death the body becomes the property of the next of kin, and so they must not object to the donation (Morgan 1995). The Human Organ Transplants Act (1989) legislated against making or receiving payment for organs so that unrelated living people cannot become donors during their lifetime (living related donors are discussed below). Nursing care Caring for donors and their families can be psychologically stressful. Unlike other terminal care, where (hopefully) peaceful death is followed by the last offices, the diagnosis of brainstem death is followed by the process of optimising organ function for harvest. While logical, this conflicts with normal nursing values where actions should be to the benefit of the patients being cared for. Once death has been diagnosed, and following harvest of the organ(s), the body is then normally transferred to the mortuary; the last offices (‘letting go’) are performed elsewhere. During this dehumanising experience, nurses are usually supporting the donor’s family; less than one-half of Watkinson’s (1995) sample of nurses found caring for donors to be a rewarding experience. In such potentially undignified situations, nurses should optimise their patient’s dignity, both before and after the diagnosis of death. Privacy can be helped by drawing curtains around patients’ beds or transferring them into siderooms. Relatives facing bereavement should be allowed to grieve; they may also gain comfort from knowing their loved one’s organs will help others to live. Relatives’ responses vary; transplant Intensive care nursing 410 coordinators are experienced at comforting relatives and may prove a valuable resource, although some relatives prefer to speak to staff with whom they have already established a strong rapport and trust. Donation criteria attempt to optimise the supply of viable transplantable organs/tissue without endangering recipients. What is viable varies with specific organs or tissue, but in many respects medical progress has enabled progressive relaxation of donation criteria. Normally, transplant coordinators can clarify whether potential donors meet the required criteria. Medical ethics requires that any treatment must be for the patient’s benefit: intubation and ventilation cannot be initiated in a living person solely to preserve organs for harvest (DoH 1998b). Donor pools are therefore largely limited to patients who are already being artificially ventilated (i. While reduced mortality is commendable, this has reduced organ availability for transplant. Austria, which operates a system of presumed consent, has the highest transplant rate in Europe (27. Inevitably, regional variations exist, sometimes from pragmatic considerations (e. Ethical issues Transplantation has always maintained a high public profile, ensuring widespread discussion of ethical issues. Organ donation relies on public goodwill, and so healthcare staff should encourage public awareness. Nurses experienced in caring for donors tend to Transplants 411 display more positive attitudes towards donation (Duke et al. Organ donation can literally be life-saving; the moral duty to facilitate transplantation creates dilemmas between whether the onus should fall on society or on individuals. Some nations, such as France, Belgium, Austria, Sweden and Norway, operate systems of presumed consent, whereby people have to actively opt-out if they do not wish to donate. Rather than asking relatives for their consent to organ donation, it would probably be preferable if they were asked to indicate their lack of objection (DoH 1998b); this change of approach could possibly reduce the incidence of relatives posthumously over-ruling a patient’s wishes, and might also reduce the feelings of guilt often experienced by relatives and ease the dilemma in which they find themselves. Except for Rastafarians, none of the major religions opposes organ donation (Randhawa 1997), although some ministers (e. Distressed relatives, facing inevitable bereavement, may not think to ask about organ donation, but may subsequently find not having been approached more stressful than being asked (Pelletier 1992). They should be approached openly, without coercion; the best time for doing this will be individual to each case, but the approach will probably benefit from Intensive care nursing 412 teamwork, possibly involving the transplant coordinators. It should be remembered, however, that if subsequent tests exclude the possibility of donation, relatives may then feel rejected, although, if criteria do prove problematic, the donation of tissue (e.
Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A cellular mechanism of fear learning and memory purchase 100 mg kamagra chewable visa erectile dysfunction kegel exercises. Failure to acquire new semantic knowledge in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions kamagra chewable 100mg generic impotence 36. The effects of cerebral lesions subsequent to the formation of the maze habit: Localization of the habit. In Brain mechanisms and intelligence: A quantitative study of injuries to the brain (pp. Describe the representativeness heuristic and the availability heuristic and explain how they may lead to errors in judgment. They fail in part due to our inadequate encoding and storage, and in part due to our inability to accurately retrieve stored information. But memory is also influenced by the setting in which it occurs, by the events that occur to us after we have experienced an event, and by the cognitive processes that we use to help us remember. Although our cognition allows us to attend to, rehearse, and organize information, cognition may also lead to distortions and errors in our judgments and our behaviors. In this section we consider some of the cognitive biases that are known to influence humans. Cognitive biases are errors in memory or judgment that are caused by the inappropriate use of cognitive processes (Table 8. The study of cognitive biases is important both because it relates to the important psychological theme of accuracy versus inaccuracy in perception, and because being aware of the types of errors that we may make can help us avoid them and therefore improve our decision-making skills. The tendency to verify and confirm our existing memories rather than to challenge and Once beliefs become established, they become Confirmation bias disconfirm them self-perpetuating and difficult to change. When schemas prevent us from seeing and using Creativity may be impaired by the overuse of Functional fixedness information in new and nontraditional ways traditional, expectancy-based thinking. Eyewitnesses may be very confident that they When we are more certain that our memories have accurately identified a suspect, even Overconfidence and judgments are accurate than we should be though their memories are incorrect. After a coin has come up “heads‖ many times in a row, we may erroneously think that the next Representativeness Tendency to make judgments according to how flip is more likely to be “tails‖ (the gambler‘s heuristic well the event matches our expectations fallacy). We may overestimate the crime statistics in our Idea that things that come to mind easily are own area, because these crimes are so easy to Availability heuristic seen as more common recall. We may think that we contributed more to a Cognitive Idea that some memories are more highly project than we really did because it is so easy to accessibility activated than others remember our own contributions. When we “replay‖ events such that they turn out differently (especially when only minor changes We may feel particularly bad about events that Counterfactual in the events leading up to them make a might not have occurred if only a small change thinking difference) had occurred before them. One potential error in memory involves mistakes in differentiating the sources of information. Source monitoring refers to the ability to accurately identify the source of a memory. Perhaps you‘ve had the experience of wondering whether you really experienced an event or only dreamed or imagined it. Rassin, Merkelbach, and  Spaan (2001) reported that up to 25% of college students reported being confused about real Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Studies suggest that people who are fantasy-prone are more likely to  experience source monitoring errors (Winograd, Peluso, & Glover, 1998), and such errors also occur more often for both children and the elderly than for adolescents and younger adults  (Jacoby & Rhodes, 2006). In other cases we may be sure that we remembered the information from real life but be uncertain about exactly where we heard it. Imagine that you read a news story in a tabloid magazine such as the National Enquirer. Probably you would have discounted the information because you know that its source is unreliable. But what if later you were to remember the story but forget the source of the information? If this happens, you might become convinced that the news story is true because you forget to discount it. The sleeper effectrefers to attitude change that occurs over time when we forget the source of information (Pratkanis, Greenwald, Leippe, &  Baumgardner, 1988). In still other cases we may forget where we learned information and mistakenly assume that we created the memory ourselves. Kaavya Viswanathan, the author of the book How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild, and Got a Life, was accused of plagiarism when it was revealed that many parts of her book were very similar to passages from other material. Viswanathan argued that she had simply forgotten that she had read the other works, mistakenly assuming she had made up the material herself. And the musician George Harrison claimed that he was unaware that the melody of his song “My Sweet Lord‖ was almost identical to an earlier song by another composer. The judge in the copyright suit that followed ruled that Harrison didn‘t intentionally commit the plagiarism. However, although schemas can improve our memories, they may also lead to cognitive biases. Using schemas may lead us to falsely remember things that never happened to Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. For one, schemas lead to the confirmation bias, which is the tendency to verify and confirm our existing memories rather than to challenge and disconfirm them. The confirmation bias occurs because once we have schemas, they influence how we seek out and interpret new information. The confirmation bias leads us to remember information that fits our schemas better than we remember information that disconfirms them  (Stangor & McMillan, 1992), a process that makes our stereotypes very difficult to change. If we think that a person is an extrovert, we might ask her about ways that she likes to have fun, thereby making it more likely that we will confirm our beliefs. In short, once we begin to believe in something—for instance, a stereotype about a group of people—it becomes very difficult to later convince us that these beliefs are not true; the beliefs become self-confirming.